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Pain is complex.


Communicating pain is even more complicated. According to 2016 U.S. Census data, one in five Americans speaks a language other than English at home, and 40% of them speak English less than very well which means that they have language barrie in everyday communication in the U.S. A language barrier in healthcare negatively affects social and racial disparities, patient-provider communication, health literac and self-agency of patients.


Process Poster presented at 2018 Sackler Student Symposium, 2018 Information Architecture Summit, and 2018 Innovation and Technology Summit (1st Place Winner for Best Poster). 

Name the Pain


To see if my pain visualizations make sense. I asked other individuals to guess my semiotics. Plus, I conducted another card sorting workshop online.

View Name the Pain questionnaire.





Visualizing Pain



The purpose of Visualizing Pain questionnaire is to find out how people perceive and visualize pain differently. More than 50 individuals filled out the questionnaire, and I compiled visualization of each pain to discover common metaphors and visual elements.

View full questionnaire.



Visual Pain Lexicon


I have asked more than 50 individuals to visualize 38 different kinds of pain and compiled visualizations to create Visual Pain Lexicon. 



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